The most visible conflict has been over AIDS drugs in Africa. Despite the role of patents in maintaining rising drug costs for public health programs across Africa, this controversy has not resulted in a review of TRIPS. Instead, an interpretive statement, the Doha Declaration, was issued in November 2001, stating that TRIPS countries should not prevent states from dealing with public health crises. After Doha, PhRMA, the United States and, to a lesser extent, other developed countries, began to work to minimize the effects of the declaration.  l) If such use is permitted to permit the use of a patent (of the second patent) that cannot be used without violating another patent (the first), the following additional conditions apply: A landmark WTO declaration was made on 14 November 2001 in Doha, Qatar. Member State governments have agreed to an independent declaration on the membership agreement and its role in reducing public health crises around the world (9). The ON TRIPS agreement was the subject of three main concerns, which were raised in the Doha Declaration (5). First, there were doubts as to whether Member States would set out the TRIPS agreement in a way that would promote public health. To address these doubts, Member States reaffirmed, in paragraph 4 of the declaration, the compatibility of the agreement with public health and the right of Member States to interpret the agreement with a view to improving public health crises.
( En) It is clear from my research that there are still no ways to reconcile the interests of commercial pharmaceutical companies with the human rights of patients in developing countries. The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the international organization that deals with trade rules between nations. Since February 2005, 148 countries have been members of the WTO. Countries are committed to complying with the 18 specific agreements attached to the WTO agreement. They cannot choose to be proponents of certain agreements, but not others (with the exception of some “multilateral” agreements that are not mandatory). The 2002 Doha Declaration confirmed that the TRIPS agreement should not prevent members from taking the necessary steps to protect public health. Despite this recognition, less developed countries have argued that flexible TRIPS provisions, such as mandatory licensing, are almost impossible to obtain. The least developed countries, in particular, have made their young domestic manufacturing and technological industries proof of the infallible policy. As in the main existing intellectual property conventions, the fundamental obligation of each Member State is to grant people in other Member States the treatment of intellectual property protection under the Convention. Section 1.3 specifies who these people are.
These persons are referred to as nationals, but include individuals or legal entities who have close ties to other members without necessarily being nationals. The criteria for determining who should therefore benefit from the treatment provided by the agreement are the criteria established for this purpose in WIPO`s major ip agreements, which naturally apply to all WTO members, whether or not they are parties to those agreements. These conventions are the Paris Convention, the Bern Convention, the International Convention for the Protection of Performers, the producers of phonograms and broadcasters (Rome Convention) and the Treaty on Intellectual Property in respect of integrated circuits (IPIC Treaty). TRIPS obligations apply equally to all Member States, but developing countries have been given additional time to implement the existing changes to their national legislation in two transitional stages depending on their level of development. The transition period for developing countries expired in 2005.